Value Unit 01


"Propaganda" comes in all shapes and sizes, some of it very subtle and even unintentional when there is a desire to promote an ideoloy without giving due consideration to the origin and consequences of such an ideology.  The truly critical thinker both identifies and avoids the various forms of propaganda and its tools!


Key Terms: Evidence

Evidence comes in different sizes!  All of your claims in an academic essay must be supported by evidence.  Providing such evidence fulfils your requirement to satisfy what is known as the “burden of proof” as you establish the probability or certainty of your claims. Study the key terms below to understand the elements of evidence in academic writing.

Concept of "Truth"

The point of critical reading and critical writing is to determine the truth of something.  In fact, any writing or reading that is not aimed at the truth is contrary to our nature as human persons.


All too often, when we are writing or reading, we engage in what is known as “confirmation bias” whereby we only engage with material that supports preconceived notions about the topic of study.


“Confirmation bias” is so pervasive that most of us engage in it without even realizing it!  It requires a lot of effort and objectivity to avoid simply reading into texts that which we want to see, and relying on sources uncritically which support our preconceptions.

Avoiding Confirmation Bias

Often, we don’t think of critical reading and writing as having a “psychological component” but our mental state is a primary factor in the way we read and write.


Consider for example the very strong (and often adversarial) ways that people cling to political or social beliefs, and refuse to countenance any opposing views to those beliefs.


The best way to avoid confirmation bias is to distinguish between belief and evidence.  We often believe things without evidence, or assume things to be true simply because we have grown up hearing a certain narrative that has never been adequately explained or challenged.

Further Reading

How to use Google Scholar

Word Choice & Word Selection

4 Parts of an Essay